This research paper by the Africa Programme at Chatham House argues that rather than jihadist ideology, long-lasting factors such as localized issues, “weak states, corruption and the brutal repression of dissent” have led to a mushrooming of militias in the Sahel, where the social contract between the countries’ largely rural populations and the governments is in need of renewal:

https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/2021-03/2021-03-02-response-jihadist-groups-sahel-perouse-de-montclos.pdf

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