On the long run, peace building requires robust social tissue. Grievances need to be reacted to, by officials, traditional authorites and society in a non-violent manner. Context plays a role, as well as what has happened within a given framework. Government should act responsibly. Instead of simply applying a classical, military strategy, it should be development that is strengthened. Specifically, schooling beyond just religious and, until our days, often unsupervised education; health; infrastructure; and the rule of law should be reinforced. The state ought to find answers, in unison with civil society, to the root causes of conflict, based on the actual situation on the ground. Access to natural resources complicates conflicting situations. Structural shortcomings can, however, be met by actionable solutions of inclusion. These need to be sustainable.

http://unicri.it/sites/default/files/2020-11/Hands.pdf

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