Land degradation in the Sahel is characterised by soil degradation, mainly due to wind erosion. This is favoured by climatic factors such as drought and diminishing rainfall, compounded by anthropogenic factors, including population growth, agricultural intensification and overgrazing. Climatic and anthropogenic factors may act independently or have effects on each other. These factors result in the reduction of vegetation cover, decrease in fallow periods and a reduction in the balance between fallow areas and cultivated fields, which are vital to maintaining soil fertility and reducing losses from erosion. Agroforestry, integrated farming and practices that promote vegetation cover are proposed as sustainable land practices in the Sahel region. These will provide soil cover to protect soils against agents of erosion, increase agricultural productivity per unit land area and diversify farmers’ sources of income, resulting in benefits for agricultural production and addressing land degradation.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284364313_Land_degradation_and_agriculture_in_the_Sahel_of_Africa_causes_impacts_and_recommendations

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